Sometimes, we just get intimidated with the jargon, so I figured… might as well take that excuse out of the way!
- One lift of a weight or completion of an exercise movement is called a repetition or ‘rep’ for short.
- A series of repetitions is called a ‘set of reps’ or a ‘set’ for short. Common exercise recommendation for beginners is for three sets of ten repetitions of an exercise, often written as 3×10 — for example three sets of ten squats. When starting, try one or two repetitions with a low weight to get the feel of the procedure, then try up to 10 exercises consecutively (one set). Try lighter or heavier weights for comfort with useful intensity. If you can only do less than eight reps then you may be lifting too heavy a weight. If you can do many more than 12 reps without too much effort, say 20, you may need to weight up a little, although some programs for strength endurance use this many reps. You should rest between sets so that your body replenishes its energy system for the next round. Time taken between sets can be as short as 60 seconds or as long as five minutes depending on the intensity and weight. One to two minutes is usually adequate rest time for a ten rep set of moderate to low intensity.
Rounded back. Exercises like the squat, leg press and deadlift require movements that place the spine under pressure in ways that can precipitate injuries, particularly to the lumbar or lower spine. In such exercises the importance of keeping the back straight or slightly arched in the neutral position cannot be overemphasized, especially for beginners. No rounded backs please.
Hyperextension. Hyperextension means pushing a joint beyond its normal range of movement. This may produce injury when excessive joint movement stresses ligaments and tendons too much. This concern has lead to the common advice not to ‘lock-out’ the arms at the elbow or the legs at the knees when doing any number of exercises with weights. However, while this is sound advice as far as it goes, particularly for beginning weight trainers, there is some disagreement on the totality of this recommendation. While explosive straightening of these joints in, say, the leg press or overhead press is agreed by most to be risky business, a more controlled full range of movement accompanied by the shortest possible pause at peak extension may not be harmful, particularly for exercisers that are injury free and without a limiting joint abnormality. A dash of common sense is required here; you shouldn’t think that an elbow will suddenly explode if you happen to straighten it while lifting. So comply with the general premise to keep the elbows and knees slightly bent under weight, but don’t overdo it and produce an unnatural half-way extension that could have its own safety issues. A very slight flexion of the joint is all that is required to prevent the possible hyperextension that is the main problem.
Shoulder Flexibility. The shoulder is a complex ball and socket joint with a wide range of movement. It is also one of the most injured joints among sports people in general and weight trainers are no exception. The rotator cuff, a group of four muscles, ligaments and tendons, is often injured, even in non-athletes, and takes some time to heal. Weights exercises requiring unusual or extreme positioning of the shoulder should be considered with much caution. Pulling a bar behind the neck as in variations to the pulldown or the overhead press (see list above) should really be avoided unless you are very sure of your shoulder capability. Even squatting with the bar on the shoulders (back squat), which is a standard procedure, should not be attempted if that rearward rotation of the shoulder joint to position the bar causes any pain or discomfort. Resort to dumbbell squats in this case. More advanced lifters can try other squat variations like front squats with bar on chest or hack squats in which the bar is held behind the legs.